Introduction to COVID-19:
COVID-19 Survival Manual (A complete guidance) contains detailed information related to COVID-19 or in other words Coronavirus.
Coronaviruses are basically a group of Viruses that affect mammals and birds.
The word Corona is a Latin corona, which means “crown” or “halo”, which generally refers to the apparent reminiscent characteristic of a crown or a solar corona around the particles when it is viewed under transmission electron microscopy (two-dimensional)
This novel type of Coronavirus was identified on January 7 by the Chinese authorities and since named SARS-CoV-2, is a new strain that had not been previously identified in humans. However, very little is known about this new type yet, but the human-to-human transmission is confirmed now.
New coronaviruses mostly cause respiratory tract infections in humans that can go from mild, such as common cold to lethal, such as SARS, MERS, and COVID-19.
Origin of COVID-19
This virus in humans was first discovered in the mid-1960s. The earliest ones were discovered in chickens and two in human patients with the common cold (later these were called human Coronaviruses 229E and human Coronaviruses OC43).
Symptoms of Coronavirus vary in other species E.g. in cows and pigs they cause diarrhea and in chickens, they mostly cause an upper respiratory tract disease, while. There’re no known vaccines or antiviral drugs to prevent or treat human Coronaviruses’ infections yet.
Other known members of this virus family are SARS-CoV -2003, HCV NL63 -2004, HKU1 in 2005, MERS-CoV -2012, and SARS-CoV-2 (formerly known as 2019-nCoV) 2019. Most of these viruses caused serious infections in the respiratory tract.
Coronaviruses are from the family of Orthocoronavirinae, Coronaviridae, order Nidovirales, and realm Riboviria.
These viruses are commonly wrapped in an RNA genome known as a positive-sense single-stranded and a Nucleocapsid of helical symmetry.
Coronaviruses’ genome size is the largest among known RNA viruses and ranges from approximately 27 to 34 kilobases.
An Introduction to Virology:
What is Virology? It is a branch of science which deal with the study of viral, submicroscopic, parasitic particles of genetic material, etc. that is wrapped in a protein coat.
However, it mainly focuses on the structure, classification, and evaluation of viruses, plus how they infect and exploit the host cells for reproduction and the way they interact with a host organism’s immunity and physiology. Last but not the least it focuses on diseases, techniques to isolate these viruses and culture them, and their use in research.
How Deadly are Viruses
Throughout the research and the reported case, it has been witnessed that some viruses silently infect the cells, though the multiplication of viruses normally damages cells or results in cell death. But these viruses normally depend on host survival for their survival; that’s why they establish mild infections in which death of the host is not a regular outcome.
Notable exceptions are HIV, Ebola virus, Hantavirus and rabies virus.
Clearly, as per Physicians a viral infection is the most difficult and demanding problem they face among other diseases.
Despite tremendous progress in medicine and science we still lack satisfactory solutions for these problems. Though many aspects of medical virology have been uncovered, and researchers are gradually clarifying others, but still many more are obscure and need work.
Because it’s very critical to investigate the properties of viruses and the relationships with their hosts for their pathologic processes, these concepts are very important for understanding the classification of viruses, their effect, and their genetic system functions.
An infection occurs when another orgasm enters our body and causes disease. The orgasms that cause infections are very diverse and can include things like viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites.
We can acquire or get infected in many different ways, such as directly from an infected person, via any contaminated food or water, and even though the bite of an insect, etc.
Let’s take a closer look at infections, the types of orgasms that cause them, and actions you can take to help prevent becoming ill.
Types of infections
Below, we’ll explore the different types of infections, you will see some examples you may be familiar with, and look into some possible treatments.
Viruses are very tiny infectious orgasms. They’re even smaller than bacteria. On the most basic level or core, viruses are composed of a piece of genetic material that’s commonly surrounded by a protein shell. Some viruses-in some cases may have an additional envelope or other features on their surface.
Viral & Normal Infection
A virus is a parasitic and it requires a host cell in which to carry out their whole life cycle. Once a virus enters the host cell, it’s can use a cellular component to reproduce and multiply. New viruses start releasing from the host cell, a process that will cause the host cell to die after sometimes.
Some examples of viral infections include (including COVID-19):
- influenza (the flu)
- common cold
- infectious mononucleosis (mono)
- herpes simplex virus (HSV)
- human papillomavirus (HPV)
- human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
- viral hepatitis- which normally includes hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E
- viral meningitis
- West Nile Virus
As per recent WHO, the most common signs of COVID-19 infection include
- Fever (100.4 °F (38 °C) at least)
- Shortness of breath
- Breathing difficulties etc.
But in severe cases, it can lead to pneumonia, organ failure, and even death (if the COVID-19 Infected person is already in any major disease or have a very weak immune system.
The incubation period of the COVID-19 infected patient ranges from one to 14 days. Mostly within five to six days, the patient shows the symptoms.
However, in rare cases, infected patients can also be asymptomatic (meaning they do not display any symptoms despite infected with the virus).
Most confirmed cases so far are in adults, but some children have been infected too. No evidence suggests that children are at higher risk of getting this virus.
Are smokers more likely to be at risk from COVID-19?
The European Union Agency for Disease control (EUADC) recently announced that people who smoke can be more susceptible to serious complications of Coronavirus infection.
The European Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (ECDC) also stated that smokers are among those potentially most vulnerable to COVID-19 because smokers hare highly prone to breathing complications and COVID-19 increases those complications leading to severe cases.
As we age, our immune system weakens. This makes us more vulnerable to infections of all types. And any sort of challenge to the body can do more damage. When the immune system gears up in solder people, there is also a higher likelihood of a phenomenon called a cytokine storm. This is where the immune system overreacts and produces too many of the chemicals to fight infection.
So you get a severe inflammatory reaction which has the potential to cause significant damage in the body, including organ failure.
According to authorities, areas with no confirmed COVID-19 cases or with no new confirmed cases of infection for 14 consecutive days are considered low-risk areas, while those with more than 50 cases in total sand outbreaks sin 14 days are high-risk areas. Medium-risk areas are those with new OCVID-19 cases in 14 days but no more than 50 cases in total, or those with more than 50 cases in total, but no outbreaks in 14 days.
The mortality rate is the procedure/measure of the number of deaths in a particular population (in general, or due to any specific cause/pandemic), scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time. However, the mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year; thus, for example, a mortality rate of 9.5 (out of 1,000 individuals) in a population of 1,000 would mean 9.5 death incidents per year in that entire population or 0.95% out of the total population.
It is distinct from the “morbidity”, which either the prevalence or incidence of disease and also from the incidence rate (the number of newly appearing cases of the disease per unit of time).
An important specific mortality rate measures the crude death rate, which looks at mortality from all causes in a given time interval, for a given population. According to the CIA estimates, globally the crude death rate will be approximately 7.7 deaths per 1,000 persons in a population.
Animals to Humans:
The new strain of coronaviruses that has skilled hundreds of people in China and caused a travel lockdown of some 56 million people has been classified as a “zoonosis” because of the way it spreads from animals to humans.
In the case of the new Coronaviruses, researchers believe that the virus may have originated with horseshoe bats in china and then could have possibly spread to other animals and ultimately to humans.
The COVID-19 and pets:
Last week when a Pomeranian pet dog was tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in Hong Kong, pets quickly became part of the Coronaviruses conversation. This Pomeranian case alarmed everyone and raised the possibility that pets could also become part of the transmission chain for this notorious severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus, which could potentially harm both pets and humans. But many questions remain unanswered until now about this possibility and how best to respond in a similar situation arises.
Hong Kong’s Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department (AFCD) explained last week that the Pomeranian who was tested “weakly positive” for the virus in a sensitive test that detected this deadly viral RNA in dog’s nose and mouth samples. “This Pomeranian dog has a slow-level of infection and it is likely to be a case of human-to-animal transmission.
AFCD also advised that mammalian pet animals including dogs and cats from households should be put under quarantine to safeguard public and animal health with infected persons.”
Shelley Rankin- a microbiologist at the University Of Pennsylvania School Of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, talked about the risks of virus infection in pets. Her lab is part of the U.S. FD- (Food & Drug) Administration’s Veterinary Laboratory Investigation and Response Network, a collective of veterinary diagnostic labs that could help determine the impact of the pandemic on pets and other animals. Her interview has been added for your clarity.
Can we pass the new COVID-19 to our pets?
The SARS-CoV-2 virus spreads from humans to humans. There is no proven research right now to support human to animal spread at this time. Samples derived from the Hong Kong dog incident had a small number of virus particles present. So in an animal yet with no clinical signs of the previous disease, it’s really hard to say what this means. Because it was a single case and doctors learned that they need to do a lot more research into the potential of the human SARS-COVID-19virus to infect animals.
That said, cats and dogs are mammals too. They have many of the same types of receptors on their cells that we do. So the virus could theoretically attach to these receptors. But will it enter their cells and replicate? Probably not
Still, people infected with SARS- COVID-19 should limit contact with their pets. Wash their hands, and don’t let them lick you on the face. If the virus is in your secretions, and there’s any potential of transmission, these are ways it could be transmitted.
Do you think pets can serve as a reservoir of the COVID-19 and pass it back to humans?
If pets started becoming infected—and we don’t know if they really can—then, of course, they could transmit this COVID-19 to us and serve as a reservoir. So in that case, we’d have to deal with these pets the same way we’re trying to deal with human patients. We’d have to figure out how to treat these
Yes, just like humans, some pets might be quarantined at a vet hospital or any specifically allocated pet shelter. Or even a dog daycare. If in rare cases they had the virus but weren’t sick or not showing any visible COVID-19 signs, we could quarantine them at home as well. But we would definitely want to limit our direct contact with them. Perhaps we’d keep them in a separate bedroom away from other people and animals living in the house. We’d also had to wash our hands frequently, and perhaps wear a mask while interacted or when we entered the Pet room.
- If we have people in the same house—some quarantined, some not—can the pet be in it with both?
- It is certainly no. Because of the out of an abundance of cautions, the answer is and should be no.
- What are the necessary/immediate measures we must do right now to protect our pets?
It is important to include pets in our family’s preparedness planning. If we are infected and get sick and we have to be quarantined than we should make sure that we have extra pet food in stock along with pet emergency medicines. And we should also make our neighbors are well aware of any feeding, walking, or medications that our pets might need in case you can’t make it back home during the lockdown. Get prepared now. I live alone with my cat. I have extra food on hand. Even if he doesn’t need it [soon], he’s going to eat it eventually.
- Wash hands regularly for at least 20 seconds, with hand wash, soaps, and water or alcohol-based hand rub
- Must cover your nose and mouth with a mask, disposable tissue or flexed elbow when you cough or sneeze
- Avoid any close contact with unwell people (maintain 1 meter or 3 feet distance)
- Stay home sand self-isolate from others in the household if you feel unwell
- If your hands are not clean then avoid touching your eyes, nose, or mouth
Our immune system defends us against every sort of viruses that cause colds and flu. These following eight steps can help and support our immune system so it’s strong and ready to fight those viruses.
- We must eat plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
- Get at least s30 minutes of exercise on most days of the week.
- Get enough sleep.
- Wash your hands.
- Keep up with your vaccinations. Almost everyone who’s sat least s6 months old should get a flu vaccine every year.
- Keep your weight healthy.
- Don’t drink too much alcohol.
- Don’t smoke.
Get the nutrients you need
Food is our best source of energy. Fill half of your plate with vegetables and fruit, and another half with lean protein and grains, as per the government’s recommended “MyPlate” guidelines.
- Not sure if you’re getting enough vitamins and minerals? Ask your doctor or a nutritionist about that.
- Don’t overdo supplements. Taking too much can be bad for you. Your doctor can let you know what you need.
Manage your stress
Everyone gets stressed, and the short bursts of stress help our immune system as well. But for any reason, lasting stress is a problem. It hampers and weakens our immune system.
You can take action to tame stress.
Must include these following steps in your stress management plan:
- Get enough sleep.
- Learn and use relaxation techniques.
- Take time for yourself.
- Build your support network of people you can talk too.
- Consider counseling, especially when you’re going through a very stressful time
Supply list: What to stock up on
First, you’ll want to scan your pantry.
Take a quick look at the things and items you already have on hand to make sure you don’t overbuy. You don’t need to go crazy with purchasing canned goods if you already have the recommended two-week’ worth. The same goes for cleaning supplies.
Then add non-perishables, long-lasting perishables, frozen fruits sand scanned vegetables to your grocery list.
If you can have fresh produce in your home, use that up first to minimize any waste. Then, look for canned, and shelf-stable items to have on hand. When it comes to canned goods, it’s always preferable to look for low-sodium versions, sand scans that say they don’t shave BPA lining, if you can find them. Frozen foods are excellent to have on’s hand, as well.
When it comes to perishable goods, don’t be afraid to add some fresh produce to your list; just try to choose longer-lasting items (we’ve listed them out for you below) or foods you can freeze. Try to buy whole produce items when possible instead of pre-cut (for example, whole mushrooms keep longer than sliced). If you accidentally buy too much fresh produce, know that you can freeze just about any fruit or vegetable (except items like celery, lettuce, and cucumbers that have high water content and can get very soggy). Bananas another good purchase s— if they get too ripe, simply peel and cut them, then freeze and add to smoothies.
The following are some suggested items for your shopping list to use as a starting point, but make sure you should be buying foods you like and would normally eat. And of course, you must include food and drinks you just plain enjoy to have and drink, such as coffee, tea, green tea, dark and white chocolate, etc. Also, if you are a parent and have a baby or toddler in the house, you’re going to want to add a few essentials baby products they need to your list as well.
- Applesauce and other fruit purees
- Canned fruit in water
- Frozen fruit
- Dried fruit
- Long-lasting and not quickly perishable fresh fruit (i.e., apples, oranges, pomegranates, lemons, limes)
- Canned vegetables s(i.e., green beans, carrots, peas, diced tomatoes, pumpkin puree), slow-sodium if possible
- Canned vegetable-based soups and chills, low-sodium if possible
- Frozen vegetables (i.e., broccoli, cauliflower, asparagus)
- Jarred tomato sauce
- Jarred salsa
- Long-lasting and not quickly perishable vegetables (i.e., potatoes, sweet potatoes, squash such as spaghetti or butternut, carrots, parsnips, onions, garlic, whole
- Tuna or salmon scanned or in a pouch
- Chicken, Duck or turkey, canned or in a pouch
- Frozen fish items, such as shrimp, prawns or individually portioned pieces of salmon
- Shelf-stable silken tofu
- Lentils, canned or vacuum-sealed
- Eggs and egg beaters
- Nut/seed butter
- Nuts and seeds
- Trail mix
- Dry or canned beans
- Whole wheat pasta or chickpea pasta
- Brown rice
- Ancient grains (i.e., quinoa, faro)
- Instant oatmeal packets/cups
- Whole wheat or seed crackers
- Whole wheat or sprouted bread (can keep sin freezer sand toast when ready to seat)
- Shelf-stable boxes of milk s(shelf-stable varieties are available for regular sand non-dairy milk)
- Powdered milk
- Few hard kinds of cheese, such as parmesan or pecorino, last the longest
- Olive oil
- Avocado soil
- Flax seeds
- China seeds
- Unsalted grass-fed butter (store in the freezer)
- Water (if you prefer not to drink tap)
- Low-sugar electrolyte drinks
- Pre-made protein-shakes (in case you get sick and lose your appetite)
- The canned or boxed low-sodium broth
Toiletries and Cleaning Supplies
Basic toiletries which we normally need include, for example, toothpaste, floss, face wash, hand wash, moisturizer, shampoo, conditioner, razors, shaving cream, and hand sanitizer, etc. Besides, other laundry items such as detergent and hand soap are also important to include in the toiletries list and must have at home.
Additionally, the CDC recommends that for household disinfectants, we must have diluted household bleach solutions, alcohol solutions with at least is70% alcohol, and most common EPA-registered household disinfectants in our shopping list.
CDC also recommends the diluted household bleach solutions available at home can also be used if appropriate for the surface/floor. You must follow the manufacturer’s instructions for application and proper house ventilation. Also, check each product to ensure the product is not past its mentioned expiration date. Make sure never mix household bleach with ammonia or any other cleanser available at home. Take note that unexpired bleach is effective against Coronaviruses when it is properly diluted.”
Preparing a bleach solution:
Add five-5 tablespoons (1/3 of a cup) of bleach per gallon of water or four-4 teaspoons of bleach per quart of water
For those people who are on prescription medications for any illness, just in case consider calling ahead for an extra month or two of medicine. The American Red Cross-ARC recommends that having at least a 30-day supply of any prescription medications for those in your home. (CVS has started delivering prescribed medications to all customers for free of cost.) They also are advising at least a one month’s supply of over-the-counter medicines such as pain killers/relievers, stomach remedies & herbs, cough and cold herbs/medicines, and throat lozenges. Besides, few daily multivitamins are also a good idea to stock up on so that you’re able to get those essential minerals and vitamins if your food choices are limited during lockdown/quarantine.
Possible treatments for COVID-19:
In most of the cases, the viral infection treatments center on relieving symptoms until our immune system clears the infection.
Also in some cases, an antiviral drug may just help us treat a viral infection. Some examples of viral infections for which antiviral are available to include HIV, herpes, and hepatitis C.
Some of the viruses stay with us for life once we’ve been infected. They just lie dormant within our body and may reactivate time to time. Some of the examples include herpes simplex virus-HSV and varicella-zoster virus-VZV.
Remember Usage of Antibiotics in COVID-19
It’s really important to take note that antibiotics are not effective in treating any viral infection.
Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms. These are very diverse, coming in a variety of different shapes and sizes.
Bacteria are found in all sorts of environments, e.g. Including soil, water bodies, and in or on our bodies. Some can survive extreme temperatures or even radiation exposure Trusted Source.
It’s very interesting to note there are a great many types of bacteria in and on our bodies, but these bacteria often don’t cause us any disease or infection. The bacteria which are in our digestive tract usually help us digest our food.
However, sometimes a bacterium can enter the human body and cause an infection or disease.
Some examples of bacterial infections include:
- Strep throat
- Bacterial urinary tract infections (UT), often caused by coliform bacteria
- Bacterial food spooning, often caused by E. coli, Salmonella, or Shigella
- Bacterial cellulite, such as due to Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
- Bacterial vaginosis
- Clostridium difficile (C. diff)
- Whooping cough
- Pneumococcal pneumonia
- Bacterial meningitis
- Lyme disease
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